So what am I supposed to check?

You’ve finished writing, you understand how to edit your work…
but just what do you need to check?

Now while it’s easy to think you can do a complete edit in one pass, believe me, concentrating on more than one element at a time is hard going.

Three elements for you to consider: content, writing mechanics, and visuals.


  • Does it flow logically?
  • Is all the information relevant to your message? … and your readers?
  • Are there any trivial or tedious details?
  • Have you included everything that needs to be there?
  • Have you included anything that doesn’t need to be there?
  • Do your pictures, graphs, tables, etc need captions?
  • Are the table of contents, table of figures, referencing complete and updated?

Writing mechanics

  • spelling, grammar, punctuation
  • phrases or sentences that sound awkward
  • repetition of words in close proximity – e.g. investigate, investigation; owns his own business
  • cliches and stereotypes – best to avoid.
  • saying the same thing twice – e.g. combine together, 5 pm in the afternoon, new innovations, free gift, added bonus
  • waffle – unnecessary words that don’t contribute to the clarity of the writing or the argument


  • How does the text sit on the page?
  • Is the document broken up into reader-friendly chunks?
  • Have you used techniques like bold or colour to highlight key words or concepts?
  • Could any of the information be presented as a table, graphic, image, footnote?
  • Are non-text elements appropriately placed within the text?
  • Is there sufficient space between text and graphics?
  • Is there enough white space? Does the page look crowded?


Proofreading symbols
Edit… proofread… review

Yes, editing takes time… but it is definitely worth it.

Your final questions:

How easy will it be for my readers to understand what I’ve written?
How easy will it be for my readers to respond to my message?




Edit, proofread, review…

Brisbane editor and proofreader, Desolie Page, Accredited Editor

You’ve got to the end of the writing and refining. You’ve read it a thousand times and you’re certain you’ve caught every last typo. You’re almost certain. You’re fairly certain. The truth is you don’t know anymore and you’re probably the last person to make that decision.

Here’s a thought before we get into editing. Writing and editing are two different skills. Writing is creative; editing is analytical. That means you should not try to edit as you write. Just get the words down.

When the writing stage draws to end, it’s time to review, edit, proofread … whatever you want to call it. Here are my tips to help you correct, tidy, refine, move and hone your work and have your readers saying, ‘Wow! That was easy to read!’

Before we look more closely at some techniques, here’s a question.


Not proofreading can very quickly diminish your credibility and professionalism.

Proofreading gives you the confidence that your writing achieves its purpose.

Proofreading ensures that you’ve actually written what you meant to write.

Proofreading ensures your message / call to action is clearly expressed.

Did you know that professional writers spend more time editing and reviewing than they do actually writing?

But where to start? The editing process requires you to take off your writer’s hat and don your editor’s hat; to be objective about how you’ve presented your information.

Give your brain some space.

Once you’ve done all you feel you can with your writing, put your work to one side. Take up another task.

Don’t be like a terrier worrying over a bone.

It’s important to give your amazing brain time and space to ‘think’, re-order, come up with better words or constructions—all without your conscious help.

If you find ideas popping into your thoughts, try to capture them. We’ve all experienced coming up with that perfect rewording, and then lost it because we didn’t record it.

Incorporate those new ideas into your writing – and refine the sentences around it.

Trick your brain into thinking it’s never seen this before.

Print your document. Without all those spell- and grammar-check squiggles, you’ll actually see what is there. You’ll pick up that you’ve really written ‘out’ when you meant ‘our’; spell-check would not recognise it as a mistake.

Show it differently on your screen. Change to Read Mode or Multiple Pages (View menu); change the Page Colour (Design menu); change to a different font or font size (Home menu). And remember to change back to the original when you’ve finished.

See it. Hear it.

By using both auditory and visual senses, you’ll hear those awkward constructions, or realise that you’ve actually written ‘is’ rather than ‘it’. It helps you to see what is really there, not what you think you’ve written.

You’ll be more aware of its logical flow, the transitions between paragraphs or topics, and its rhythm.

And if you need to take a breath before you reach the end of a sentence, it would probably benefit from being turned into two shorter sentences.

Listen to an outsider’s comments.

Ask a trusted colleague (preferably one that’s not been involved in the writing) or outsider. They will be able to tell you if they can understand what you’ve written, and how easy it is to read.

Tip: Ask them to tell you what it’s about, what you want them to do.

Call in the pros.

No matter the size of your document, we editors and proofreaders love to bring out the very best in your writing – and it will still sound like you.

Remember: small mistakes, such as misplaced apostrophes, can have a disproportionate effect on your readers’ impression of your work. 

Next up – What do you look for when you’re editing?


Focused nonfiction writing
Editing is vital!



Writing strategy

For some time, I’ve been trying to find a way to easily share the bare bones of the writing strategy I use when I write and when I teach it.

Here’s one attempt – and I really don’t know how well it will work.

Your feedback will always be appreciated. (with apologies to my talented designer friends).

Nonfiction Writing Plan

Using headings in nonfiction writing


Readers faced with pages of text broken only by paragraph spaces will probably feel overwhelmed and stop reading. As a nonfiction writer, you have information that you need to share with your readers. So it makes sense to make it as easy as possible for them to continue reading and to understand what you are saying.

Headings serve multiple purposes in helping your readers by

  • breaking the text into reader-friendly chunks
  • providing signposts for your readers to keep them mindful of the structure of your work
  • helping you promote your argument.

As a technical writer, your aim is to lead your readers to reach the same conclusion that you have. Headings provide a context for your readers – both writer and readers begin at the same place and continue along the same path, guided by the headings.

Readers need headings

  • to give an overall picture
  • to point out where they are in the discussion
  • to assist in making the connections between the points of the argument.

Your readers understand the details better if they have been given an overview first. Remember, it’s the headings that provide the overview.

Readers will retain those details longer when they know in advance the nature of the information they are going to receive.

The heading level indicates the degree of detail being discussed.

Advantages for readers

  • breaking up the text
  • providing overviews along the way
  • announcing each key point before its detailed discussion
  • using the location and size of each topic to indicate its importance
  • allowing readers to decide where they will start
  • allowing readers to select what parts of the document they will read
  • giving readers places to pause, to regroup their thoughts or to rest.

Advantages for the writer

  • Structuring your document is so much easier!
  • You can readily check the logical flow of the argument.
  • You can move sections to a different place in the document when you can easily see the extent of that section.
  • You can create sub-headings to help you check the structure, and remove the sub-headings later if your document template or format does not allow for that number of levels.
  • You don’t have to provide transitions between topics.


A word of warning!

If your headings feed into an automatically generated table of contents, make sure your final task before publishing is to update the table of contents.

PS    If, for whatever reason, you can’t include headings, you can use them to help you structure your writing – then delete them during the reviewing process.

  Headings help both the writing and reading processes.

Perfect Pages - editing nonfiction writing
Sharp nonfiction writing

Notes on DL brochures

How words sit on the page is so important in these haven’t-got-time-to-deal-with-hard-to-read-stuff days.
The Feisty Empire copywriter and editor, Paul Hassing, shares his thoughts.

Practical Copywriting Tips

An easy way so see DL. An easy way so see DL.

A client asked me to edit a brochure and suggest a format.

Once I saw what the brochure was for (promoting a course to time-poor execs) I suggested ‘DL’ format.

So what the hell is DL? Swim Communications puts it very well.

In short, DL is a third the size of A4 (the size you stick in your printer).

My client, who had imagined an A4 format, asked why I preferred DL.

So I said:

‘DL is easier and cheaper to post to many prospects.

Also, I feel it looks more businesslike.

If you go flat A4, you’ll either have to post it folded anyway, or add cardboard to stop it getting mangled en route.

But if you hit a non-A4 letterbox, it’ll get mangled anyway.

Not a good look for your brand.

Folded DLs are also easier to hand out at events,

View original post 150 more words

Tips for clear, engaging, sharp writing.

In an earlier article, I gave you some insights into ‘clear, engaging, sharp’ writing.

Now for more, this time grouped and with suggested sharper versions.

Superfluous words

We would like to invite you to …         You’re invited to …            We invite you to …

I would like to congratulate you …            Congratulations …

… better than what we expected.            … better than we expected.

In view of the fact that …             Because …

In the event that …              If …

In my personal opinion …           In my opinion …

There are many people wanting an answer to that question.
Many people want an answer to that question.
Many people want that question answered.

A summary of these findings is given in Table 6.
Table 6 summarises these findings.

The implementation of these maintenance procedures should occur immediately upon putting the motor into service.
These maintenance procedures should be implemented as soon as the motor is put into service.

Management has become cognizant of the necessity of the elimination of undesirable vegetation surrounding the periphery of our facility.
Please remove the weeds around the building.


Our bottom line is preventing disruption.
Preventing disruption is our main focus.

We need to take advantage of this window of opportunity.
We need to take advantage of this opportunity.

I don’t want you to move the goalposts part way through the project.
I don’t want you to change the brief part way through the project. 

We need to think outside the box to solve this problem.
We need to think creatively to solve this problem. 

Why not share your examples of superfluous words and clichés in the comments?

I’ll have another blog about ways you can please your readers with your clear, engaging, sharp writing.

Perfect Pages editing
sharp writing